Please note: This question is neither homework nor seeking medical advice. I'm simply asking for a factual, objective, biological explanation of the various neuro-motor diseases/illnesses that can act as the underlying cause to LES malfunction.
The primary function of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is to prevent stomach acid from backwashing into the esophagus. This sphincter is an involuntary muscle, and so, for it to malfunction (unable to fully or properly close), it must be the result of an underlying neuro-motor (autonomic) disease or condition.
What such condition attacks this sphincter/valve, thereby causing it to malfunction and not operate properly? How exactly does this condition effect the sphincter biologically/neurologically?
Looks like the Vagus Nerve (10th Cranial) innervates this sphincter, so I guess the question is: What neuro-motor diseases attack the Vagus Nerve or cause it to malfunction?