Within a species there may be subspecies that are named using trinomial nomenclautre. For example the Grizzly Bear, Ursus arctos horribilis is a subspecies of the Brown Bear Ursus arctos.
The dictionary definitions of subspecies seldom expand beyond this:
A taxonomic category that ranks below species, usually a fairly permanent geographically isolated race.
I'm assuming redefining species into subspecies is not a completely arbitrary process as the definitions would imply, but is based on biology. What are the biological criteria for a group within a species to be "upgraded" to a subspecies?