Are there any non-mammalian animals that produce milk to feed their young, or are mammals the only milk-producing animals?

  • 4
    $\begingroup$ The classical definition of a mammal includes production of milk (hence the name). Your question is a bit circular unless you specify your definition of a mammal. $\endgroup$
    – Superbest
    Commented Oct 5, 2015 at 19:40
  • $\begingroup$ @Superbest: in which case, equivalently, "are mammals a clade?", to which we can reply, "no, because not all common ancestors of pigeons and humans produce milk", or reply "yes, by a No True Scotsman argument" ;-) $\endgroup$ Commented Oct 6, 2015 at 15:59
  • $\begingroup$ Related question: Do any birds beside the family Columbidae (or any reptile or mammal) feed their young "Crop Milk" $\endgroup$
    – rg255
    Commented Mar 4, 2016 at 13:00
  • $\begingroup$ one can find pretty detailed examples and a possible explanation in this article $\endgroup$ Commented Sep 1, 2019 at 8:28

2 Answers 2


Short answer
Technically, only mammals lactate. To lactate means to produce milk from the mammaries to feed a baby or young animal. Milk, in turn, is defined as the secretions from mammary glands. However, there are animals other than mammals that produce milk-like substances to feed their young.

Both male and female pigeons (Columba livia) possess the ability to produce a nutrient substance, termed pigeon ‘milk’, to feed their young. A similar substance is produced by flamingos and male emperor penguins. The normal function of a crop is a food storage area located between the oesophagus and proventriculus where food is moistened before further break-down and digestion through the gastrointestinal tract (Fig. 1).

pigeon dove
Fig. 1. Schematic of the location of the 'milk'-producing crop in a pigeon (left) and a pigeon feeding its chick from its crop (right). Sources: ZME Science and Bird Ecology Study Group

During the process of pigeon ‘lactation’, a curd-like substance is regurgitated from the crop to the chick. The dry-substance of pigeon ‘milk’ is 60% protein, 32-36% fat, 1-3% carbohydrate and some minerals, including calcium. It has been shown that pigeon ‘milk’ contains IgA antibodies, which provides evidence suggestive that it is more than a nutrients alone. The physiological mechanisms governing pigeon ‘milk’ production and delivery are unknown. It is well documented that the pigeon crop is responsive to the lactogenic hormone prolactin. However, the pigeon crop tissue during ‘lactation’ is structurally unrelated to the mammary glands in mammalians, because it is not glandular and secretory processes do not seem to be involved (Gillespie et al, 2011).

The similarity between this process and lactation in mammals is striking, but is a case of convergent evolution, where unrelated species independently evolve similar traits. 'Milk' production is also recorded in some fishes, where it is fed to their young in the form of a mucous secretion on the skin (Buckley, 2010). Certain amphibians shed skin cells that are fed to the young. But the 'milk' of pigeons and doves is thought to be the most highly specialized of any non-mammalian 'milk' (Australian Geographic, September 2011).

- Buckley et al., J Exp Biol; 213: 3787-95
- Gillespie et al., BMC Genomics (2011); 12: 452


Producing milk, per se, is a strictly mammalian phenomenon. There are functionally similar processes in non-mammals (e.g., 'crop milk', produced by some birds), but because these processes evolved independently from the evolution of mammalian milk, they are not considered to truly be milk.


You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .