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The Chinese Idiom The mantis stalks the cicada, unaware of the oriole behind (螳螂捕蝉,黄雀在后), which the story behind the idiom comes from Shuo Yuan(说苑), refers to those who are attracted by immediate interests without thinking about the possible dangerous results.

In reality, do mantises stalk cicada? Moreover, are cicadas stalked by birds?

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Yes, mantises hunt cicadas...
![Mantis eating cicada
Mantis eating cicada. Source: Dreamstime.

...and yes, orioles hunt cicadas too...
Oriole
Oriole eating cicada. Source: Bird Ecology Study Group.

.., and what may be more relevant to your idiom: orioles prey on mantises.

Oriole vs mantis
Oriole eating mantis. Source: Sustainable Adventure.

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