If we removed one ribosome from human and we put it inside horse, would the ribosome perform the as it would in humans or it will not work or somewhere inbetween?

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Bio. It's best to ask one specific targeted question per post. I.e. You might want to split them up. Second, a ribosome is huge. There's many things that gives it functionality. There is not something as the thing. $\endgroup$ – AliceD Nov 21 '15 at 9:08
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    $\begingroup$ This sums it up quora.com/… $\endgroup$ – user19679 Nov 22 '15 at 0:00
  • $\begingroup$ First part is too broad and would essentially be considered a homework in this site. You should start with basic biochemistry and molecular biology (looking at your question I would also recommend you to read some fundamental organic chemistry. There are thousands of chemicals made of same atoms and sometimes even the same number of atoms [isomers] but still they are chemically very different). $\endgroup$ – WYSIWYG Nov 23 '15 at 5:02

One can prepare rabbit ribosomes from reticulocytes (immature red blood cells), and by providing a few cofactors required for an active extract, create an in vitro system that will translate virtually any eukaryotic mRNA that contains the correct sequence determinants. You can purify mRNA from your cells or tissues of choice, or you can synthesize an mRNA in vitro using a DNA template and an RNA polymerase. Either of these will be translated in a nuclease-treated rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

IVT (in vitro translation) extracts can be prepared from virtually any source (e.g., C. elegans shown by Bob Edgar in Cell ~ 1984). So I would predict that horse ribosomes would be happy translating human mRNAs, and human ribosomes would be happy translating horse mRNAs. The experiment you described, placing a human ribosome into a horse cell would be difficult to interpret because the endogenous horse ribosomes would already be translating the endogenous horse mRNAs, and so detecting activity from one additional ribosome could be challenging (even if you could come up with an experimental approach that gets that foreign ribosome in to the cell).

The take home message is that ribosomes, in general, do not care where the mRNA comes from--because ribosomes, as far as we know, do not have a way of distinguishing "self" from "other".

  • $\begingroup$ thank you for the valued information, actually my concern is if I want to think about the nature of the Ribosome, it would be chemical interactions at the end of the day right?,now, what is the thing that gives the result of the chemical interactions a behavior and function? $\endgroup$ – Hadi Nov 22 '15 at 8:07
  • $\begingroup$ In an abstract sense one can consider the ribosome as an enzyme, an enzyme whose name would be something like polypeptide polymerase (or perhaps polypeptide synthetase). Now it happens that this enzyme has two rather large sub-units, and each sub-unit consists of a large structural RNA, plus dozens of proteins, but to answer your question, the ribosome has a catalytic reaction site, and it consumes substrates, and spits out products, just like every other enzyme. There is nothing magical. So your question becomes: how do enzymes work? You have the answer: chemical interactions. $\endgroup$ – mdperry Nov 22 '15 at 18:30
  1. what is the thing that gives the ribosome its functionality ( to synthesis the protein ).

RNA strands can fold themselves in a sequence specific manner. In fact ribosomes are highly structural being able to hold tRNAs having a hole which a polypeptide goes through during protein sysnthesis.

  1. I do not know, but it could work. I do not know if it works exactly as horse ribosome works, either.

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