Cardiovascular disease is the number one morbidity factor of women. I am studying the relationship between persistent HPV infection and CVD (Cardiovascular Disease) in inadequate immune responses. There are some statistical evidences but pathways are unknown:

  • HPV linked to cardiovascular disease in women in women; excludes obesity, smoking and diabetes.
  • Troubles With Heart Are Linked to HPV which highlights benefits of HPV vaccination only in HPV infection
  • No reliable method to clear the HPV virus. HPV vaccination prevents cervix cancer indirectly by preventing infections (prevent oncogene activation, its early form formation and developing into cancer). (Duodecim, Infection diseases, HPV-vaccines [Finnish])
  • No support for the statement that HPV vaccination may reduce CVD later in women's lives. 3 But vaccines should create herd immunity (neutralizing antibodies mediates active protection), also in males and other sites than cervix. Some cross protective effects against non-targeted HPV types [VCS].
  • Nearly 20 percent of individuals with CVD do not show any risk factors, indicating that other 'nontraditional' causes may be involved in the development of the disease, here.

Compare HPV-Cervical Cancer and HPV-CVD. The former seems to have much more local effects because of cellular pathways (DynaMed Plus hpv and cervical cancer). The latter is probably associated by broader pathways involving tissue-organ level, without any analysis in Op. cit.
Mechanism of HPV-CVD (systematic) which includes local and systematic pathways

  • Local. HPV's role in inactivating two tumor suppressor genes, p53 and retinoblastoma protein (pRb) -- the same process by which HPV causes cancer. p53 has been shown to be essential in regulating the process of atherosclerosis; the retinoblastoma gene plays a pivotal role in regulating cell proliferation. Here. Stable infection - dysplasia or undetectable in some genotypes. [Meijer] about the gradual development of cell-mediated immune response presumed mechanism.
  • Inadequate immune response and persistent HPV infection (E6, E7).
  • Systematic?


  1. Human Papillomavirus and Cardiovascular Disease Among U.S. Women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003 to 2006. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 2011; 58: 2001-2006 DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.07.038
  2. Cardiovascular disease prevention for women attending breast and cervical cancer screening programs: the WISEWOMAN projects. The WISEWOMAN Workgroup.
  3. Meijer CJLM, Helmerhorst TJM, Rozendaal L, van der Linden JC, Voorhorst FJ, Walboomers JMM. Histopathology. 1998;33-83-86. 2. Schiffman M, Kjaer SK. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2003;31:14-19. 3. Ho GYF, Bierman R, Beardley L, Chang CJ, Burk RD. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:423-428.

Pathway organ level

  • HPV-cervix cancer
  • HPV-lung cancer (here put research pressure in some universities instead of HPV-CVD)

[conjuncture] Tissue-Organ level mechanism

Preventing infection of cervix does not prevent the manifestation spreading to CVD by vaccines Cervarix/Gardasil.

I propose a tissue-organ level mechanism because I cannot explain the relationship only by the cellular level mechanism. Assume skin has a visual-processing pathway of peripheral neurons, as described here i.e. it preprocesess some events of the geometrical data before going to the target organ (here the heart). Missing of such an unit can cause alterations in the balance of sympaticus-parasympaticus firing, thus causing alterations of the pacemaking and conduction system. Unknown

  • How is CVD formed in HVP infection in women? Compare incidence of non-HPV and HVP cases where CVD has been formed
  • HPV 16, 18, 31, 33 and 45 most common agents in cervical cancer. HPV is associated with many conditions: vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, VIN, VaIN, CIN, AIS, genital warts, ... I think we cannot assume that those types causing the cervical cancer are mostly associated with CVD.
  • High-risk HPV and anogenital cancer. Can we assume that these agents are associated with CVD?

How can you hypothesize the relationship between HPV and CVD? Which HVP genotypes can cause CVD?


2 Answers 2


This is an impressively referenced question, but I don't think it's reliably answerable for several reasons:

  • it's POB
  • the association is merely theoretical at this point
  • the study 'results' were based on a very small number of women.

While the percentage of woman with HPV is high, those with no other risk factors for CVD who have experienced MIs is much lower.

The idea is interesting enough to warrant further study perhaps, but certainly not enough to answer your questions, "How can you hypothesize the relationship between HPV and CVD? Which HVP genotypes can cause CVD?" I mean, if you want good, referenced answers, there isn't an answer yet.

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ What is POB? Pelvic Ovarian ... ? $\endgroup$ Dec 18, 2015 at 12:24
  • $\begingroup$ Not sure what POB stands for either... Though searching for it I came up with Victoria Beckham's hairstyle... Posh (Spice) + bob = POB... :-) $\endgroup$
    – AMR
    Dec 18, 2015 at 14:17
  • $\begingroup$ @Masi - POB = Primarily Opinion Based (not evidence-based). Makes a reliable answer not possible. $\endgroup$ Dec 27, 2015 at 17:01
  • $\begingroup$ @anongoodnurse I do not think so. The question is about how you can reach the evidence based answer, not how you are there. $\endgroup$ Dec 27, 2015 at 20:02

CVD is the leading cause of death in the developed world and HPV is the most common STD in the developed world. When dealing with something that common alot would need to be ruled out before any causative relationship was hypothesized for example the first link did not consider that oral Contraceptive use is higher in women (obviously) would increase atherosclerosis / CVD related causes of death in the absence of other CVD associated factors such as obesity

  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Yes, this is a valid point. You have to rule out the 1) contraception use in this question and its relation to atherosclerosis > CVD, ... 2) obesity when you are getting away. There is a net of those factors where the causalities need to be defined. $\endgroup$ Jun 18, 2017 at 5:46

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