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I've had difficulty finding an answer to this question on Google.

From what I've been taught, DNA is used as a "naive blueprint" to synthesize proteins.

If we can manipulate DNA (Which I hear we can) does this not mean we can force cells to produce specific proteins we want? Purely hypothetically, ethics aside.

I also can't quite understand "what" uses that DNA to create proteins, or does it magically just "replicate itself" and turn into a new cell with the same proteins...

Sorry for the vague last question, but these questions were bothering me for a while now and I wanted to have some more references to read or answers.

Thanks ahead of time.

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closed as too broad by Remi.b, AliceD, kmm, James, The Last Word Dec 22 '15 at 5:43

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to Biology.SE. Currently there are two questions in your post, one of which is way too broad. You should edit your post to restrict it to one question only. In the meantime I am voting to close. $\endgroup$ – Remi.b Dec 20 '15 at 6:13
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Yes, using recombinant DNA technology, one can take engineered DNA which has been put in an expression vector, induce it by one of various mechanisms to enter cells grown in culture (they can be from human, mouse, monkey, plant, bacteria, yeast, you name it), and the cells machinery will take over, transcribing and then translating it into protein.

does this not mean we can force cells to produce specific proteins we want? Purely hypothetically, ethics aside.

Absolutely, and this is done on a regular basis - sometimes at industrial scales, as a matter of fact. Examples of well-known recombinant proteins include insulin, the blood clotting factor VIII, and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

I also can't quite understand "what" uses that DNA to create proteins

This is an extremely broad question, but Wikipedia's Introduction to Genetics may help explain some of these ideas using less technical terms.The quick answer is that it is the cell's transcription and translation machinery mentioned above that do the heavy lifting. Very briefly, DNA is transcribed into messenger RNA or mRNA, which is then targeted to the ribosome for translation in protein. Think of the DNA as the main instructions for the shop, the mRNA as the working templates distributed to many workers, the ribosome as the machinery which takes the template and produces the finished goods, the protein.

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  • $\begingroup$ I think the OP is asking can this be done in vivo, based on the title of the question. Also wouldn't use hGH and steroids such as testosterone and estradiol cause up regulation of some, but not all proteins? Not as specific as targeted, inducible expression, but would likely affect some but not other proteins. $\endgroup$ – AMR Dec 20 '15 at 3:00
  • $\begingroup$ Thanks this helps a lot! It's a vague quesiton I just wanted a direction to increase my understanding of the subject. I'll do more reading on ribosomes then. $\endgroup$ – Dmitry Dec 21 '15 at 19:53

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