According to Wikipedia, galls (cecidia) are formed by parasitic insects and mites like gall wasps (Neuroterus albipes). At some metamorphic stage, these organisms alter cell division processes in meristematic tissues of their host plants, which creates a tumour on (typically) the surface of leaves, branches or roots. These organisms use the galls as their habitat and/or food source (exploiting the sugars present).
However, I also know that bullhorn acacia and ants form an interspecific mutualistic relationship (with galls), so apparently galls don't need to be parasitic. Are there any other specific plant-insect pairs that have the same type of mutualistic gall relationship as the acacia-ant system?