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Are there ways by which an enzyme may be activated or inhibited by non substrate molecules other than allosteric activation or inhibition?

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Apart from what Phototroph mentioned in their answer (competitive and non-competitive inhibition), an enzyme can be activated/inhibited via covalent modification of the protein (post-translational modification) such as phosphorylation by protein kinases (phosphorylation is the most common modification).

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Yes, competitive inhibition is another form of enzyme inhibition. The inhibitor binds to the active site here, as opposed to allosteric inhibition, where it binds to a secondary site. An example of an inhibitor would be the cyanide ion (CN-), which inhibits Cytochrome C oxidase, preventing electron chain transport and thus ATP production. Note this ion is different from the substrate, oxygen.

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