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I have been working on analyzing Electrocardiogram data.

I have read several documents related to conditions of the Atria during fibrillation and flutter, the most lucid being that atria quiver with rapid rate.

This manifests as multiple P-waves (some documentation refers to them as "F-waves" and regards P-waves as absent) in the Electrocardiogram. However in this condition, we get a completed QRS-complex in the Electrocardiogram.

Now, coming to my question, in both scenarios i.e. Atrial Flutter and Atrial Fibrillation, i get multiple P-waves(or F-waves) with completed QRS. So how do i differentiate between the two conditions ??

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A-Flutter will have discernible waves that can be counted, usually. The R-R interval will be regular or maybe slightly irregular if there's a variable conduction block in the AV Node. A-Fib will ALWAYS be completely irregular without discernible pattern.

You can also modify the position of your limb leads. There is an EKG placement called the S5-Lead that basically makes it where the QRS disappears because it's electrical impulse is perpendicular to the monitoring leads. The Atria however, become super-visible on the EKG.

To do S5: Place the RA electrode on the patient's manubrium. Place the LA electrode on the 5th intercostal space, right sternal border. Place the LL electrode on the right lower costal margin.

Then set the EKG to view Lead I

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