We need to distinguish plants which replicate by sexual reproduction from those who reproduce asexual.
Due to the higher recombination rate in sexual reproduction it should be easy to find your plant to which the leaf corresponds to. Because you can see lot of single nucleotide polymorphisms and maybe other changes in the DNA unique to the plant whose leaf you found.
If your plant species reproduce by vegetative reproduction it could be more difficult because you can not find a lot of DNA changes making your plant unique. But since there are some mutations in DNA from vegetative reproducing plants (see here and here) you probably should try to find them.