How many paraphyletic groups can theoretically be created from this phylogeny?
I found (2n)-2. Is this correct? This is not homework nor exam, just a question about paraphyletic groups.
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If we define a paraphyletic group as any group on a phylogeny that is not monophyletic, I count there to be 2^n - 2*n paraphyletic groups for a fully ladderized tree with n tips.
There are 2^n possible groups of n species. Of these groups, 2*n of them are monophyletic: n groups containing a single species, and n groups containing multiple species.