Description of the location
- It is in India
- The place is 300-400 m above sea level.
- There is no water body nearby.
Which insect makes these patterns?
It could be an antlion. Antlions are a group of about 2000 species that can be found all around the world (including India). Antlions mainly live in the kind of dry areas you describe and that we see in your picture. I don't think one could be more accurate and tell the genus without a picture of the individual but I might be wrong.
Here is an adult antlion:
and here is a larva antlion
The small pits you see are made by larvae. The larvae make these small trap pits to capture ants (and some other small insects). The larvae is buried in the soil at the center of the pit and simply waits for prey to fall into the pit. Below is a picture of such a pit: