In the social sciences, unintended consequences is a term used to describe an unexpected positive or negative effect of a particular action. This is obviously the wrong word to use in the context of evolutionary systems but I am looking for something that has a similar concept. It may be related to concepts in dynamical systems theory.
For example, if we look at one trait or a group of traits, we may be able to see how this adaptation benefited a population. However, the mutations that occurred along the way would no doubt alter other systems/properties of the organism. In many cases these effects would be negligible. I am looking for any cases where the effect of one set of adaptation leads to another comparably impactful (either positive or negative) effect for the population.
The following is more theoretical and controversial but I am particularly interested in larger, more complex traits such as behavior (which may be considered the product of many different evolutionary adaptations and molecular changes) and any "unintended consequences" that could occur as a result of such a behavior. For example, empathy may be considered a very complex trait that has an evolutionary advantage (post hoc we might say it evolved because it allows specific kinds of communication in social groups) but it may also cause populations to react incorrectly (with regards to survival) in threatening situations when an empathetic response is not the most optimal response. I realize I am treading in vague territory here and it may be controversial to reduce empathy down to the molecular level as I have done in this example. But if there is any work at least related to this idea on a basic level I would be interested.
In summary, I am looking for either the term that describes this sort of analysis, if it exists, or some major examples that may help me do further research on the topic.