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Muscle fibres are of two types - type I and type II. They differ from each other in various properties. Even the underlying biochemical processes are different to suit their function (slow vs fast) enter image description here

In a normal muscle, on certain stains like ATPase and SDH, to differentiate between the types of fibres, a checkerboard pattern is seen. But in reinnervation following long standing denervation, there is a loss of the checkerboard pattern and fibre type grouping is seen.

This happens because, the the denervated fibres are reinnervated by other ones, which can change their type.

The question is, how can neural innervation lead to biochemical changes in muscle type?

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'Slow' and 'fast' motor neurons differ in their firing patterns. This differentially affects intracellular calcium concentrations and energy usage of the innervated muscle fibers over time, and thereby influences their gene expression. The following review extensively covers this: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22013216

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