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These brown butterflies are very frequent at my place now. Two or three can be found quietly sitting with their wings folded everyday, at different locations. It's a transition period between Autumn and Winter here, West Bengal, India.

What species is this?

Why is it taking shelter inside a house? They don't seem to move much, even during the day I've found one sitting quietly by the window. It wasn't flying off even after being disturbed.

Image1 Image2 Image3

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I think this is the "Dark Evening Brown" or Melanitis phedima possibly Melanitis phedima bela:

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Some further information can be found here (image 1) and here (image 2). If you look close at the second image, you can see the spot on the wing.

Why they are coming into the houses is something I can only speculate about, but probably they are either attracted by light or by warmth.

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As to your question why they come into the house: Some butterflies survive winter (hibernate) on a dry, cool but frost-free place such as parts of houses that are not heated. In autumn they actively search for such places. I often find them in a wood stack or on the attic. In Europe, examples are Gonepteryx rhamni, Polygonia c-album and Inachis io. I think the latter two belong to the same family as Melanitis phedima, so it might try to find a place to hibernate. For more info see https://www.britishbutterflies.co.uk/winter.asp

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    $\begingroup$ Slight wording issue; For these species (ones with a life history that includes hibernation as adults), it's not that they can survive winter as adults, it's how they survive winter. In most taxa of insects living in temperate regions species survive winter as either eggs, larvae, pupae or adults, or a mixture of hibernation stages. $\endgroup$ – fileunderwater Nov 4 '16 at 8:39
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    $\begingroup$ @fileunderwater You are absolutely right. Improved that in my answer. $\endgroup$ – RHA Nov 4 '16 at 8:44

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