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This question already has an answer here:

How/Why

Do Koi have a lifespan of hundreds of years? Do humans have a lifespan of decades? Do dogs have such a short lifespan?

Within these questions I pose further questions. How does size relate to lifespan. Elephants?

If dogs were to evolve independent of humans (at this point) would they rule the world?

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marked as duplicate by MattDMo, WYSIWYG Dec 16 '16 at 19:24

This question has been asked before and already has an answer. If those answers do not fully address your question, please ask a new question.

  • $\begingroup$ This question is far too broad, because you are asking too many questions. Please limit yourself to one focused question per post. $\endgroup$ – MattDMo Dec 16 '16 at 18:05
  • $\begingroup$ An interesting question and @Wesley has answered it quite nicely. Apart from this, I would like to direct you to a neat article published by Yaneer Bar-Yam in PRL last year on when does natural selection favour limited lifespans. A detailed explanation was given in Gizmodo website last year. $\endgroup$ – Shab86 Dec 16 '16 at 18:52