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I used to think Brassica oleracea cultivars (e.g., kale, cabbage) were different species originating from the same species Brassica oleracea. But it seems I were wrong, right?

If so can we breed two different cultivars with each other, e.g., cabbage + cauliflower?

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Cultivars are, per definition, the same species of plants. Animal breeds are the same species too, think of the bewildering phenotypical variety of dogs for example; they are still the same species, i.e., Canis lupus.

To your question - Yes, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts are the same species.

Hybrids of these plants are called cultivars; broccoli and cauliflower yields broccoflower for example. However, I wasn't able to find evidence of a hybrid between cabbage and cauliflower - a cabbaflower?

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These are the same species. There are people working on new cultivars. This species can also cross with some of the other brassicas - search for 'The Triangle of U' for further information on interspecific hybrids in this group.

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