You're describing a Ring Species: "a connected series of neighbouring populations, each of which can interbreed with closely sited related populations, but for which there exist at least two "end" populations in the series, which are too distantly related to interbreed, though there is a potential gene flow between each "linked" population".
The classic ring species is the Herring Gull complex, and that's probably what you read about:
The classical example of the ring species model was originally based upon the herring gull complex (Mayr 1942). This group comprises more than 20 taxa of large gulls (Haffer 1982) which together occupy a circumpolar breeding range in the northern hemisphere. ... Mayr envisioned all taxa of the circumpolar chain to be connected by gene flow, while herring and lesser black-backed gulls in Europe, the hypothetical endpoints of the ring, have reached full reproductive isolation and now coexist as distinct species.
--The Herring Gull Complex (Larus argentatus - fuscus - cachinnans) as a Model Group for Recent Holarctic Vertebrate Radiations
However, recent genetic work shows that the situation is even more complicated than this, and it's questionable whether they really are "ring species":
Contrary to the ring-species model, we find no genetic evidence for a closure of the circumpolar ring through colonization of Europe by North American herring gulls. However, closure of the ring in the opposite direction may be imminent, with lesser black-backed gulls about to colonize North America.
--The herring gull complex is not a ring species.