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I'm not sure whether I can ask those questions about evolution in one post or should separate them into multiple posts, but I am just curious about the evolutiontheory. (I am new here)

Sorry for my english and my many questions :)

My questions:

  1. They say humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor. Was it literally one ancestor? Because if so, then it would need a partner to regenerate children right?

  2. Even if they would have children, then these children would be brothers and sisters right, which means they cannot have sex to regenerate their children?

  3. They say that humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, does that mean that a certain brother's family became monkeys and the other brother's family became human?

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chimpanzee%E2%80%93human_last_common_ancestor


  1. If humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, then how come humans and monkeys are so different in terms of intelligence, hygiene, clothing?

  2. They say humans lost our fur because we don't need it anymore, but how come we still need cloths to wear to protect us from cold?

  3. Why do humans have to brush our teeth, cut our nails, use toilets and work for our food and drinks, while any other animals don't?

  4. Why do men and women have those specific features that make a man a man and a woman and woman? Why do women have to give birth and not men? Why do men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger than woman (while male and female chimpansees (our closest ancestors) both grow facial hair Why do men grow facial hair?)? Some people say men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger because they used to hunt (why did men hunt and not women?), but some say men hunt because they have more facial hair and are built stronger. Wouldn't it be a circle reasoning?

https://www.reddit.com/r/explainlikeimfive/comments/31zou1/eli5_what_evolutionary_advantage_does_having_long/ (facial hair because hunt)

http://www.answers.com/Q/Why_did_men_hunt_and_women_gather_in_prehistoric_times (hunt because built strong)


  1. Why do human male and female look different compared to other animals? Why do human individuals look different from each other, but all other animals look like each other (geometrically)?

  1. Could it be possible that we relate humans to animals, because we associate animal behavior with human behavior due to our human reasoning (which we can't help of course)? But human and animal behavior that look similar, does not mean that they have the same meaning right?

  2. Does 'survival of the fittest' mean the following?: Humans have finger nails and a protruding nose, because animals that didn't have nails or protruding noses are extinct?

  3. Why do humans have a chin, curly hair, eyebrows, lips and facial hair above the lips while monkeys don't?

  4. Why do humans have this specific hairline (separation line between hair and skin)

https://www.reddit.com/r/askscience/comments/v3w3b/why_do_humans_have_such_distinct_hairlines_as/


  1. Why can human hair and finger nails grow forever, but monkey's hair and nails don't grow that long?

https://www.quora.com/Why-dont-the-other-primates-have-long-hair


  1. Some human emotions such as guilt and fear sometimes result in not doing anything at all, but isn't that evolutionary a disadvantage?

  2. Humans have so little fur compared to monkeys. Which means that at some point, starting from the ancestor, the next generation lost more and more fur. At some moment there was so little fur left that generation felt cold and wore some clothing? But what about their naked parents who have about the same amount of fur?

  3. Why are there humans and monkeys, but not intermediate forms that slowly changed from the ancestor to human or ancestor to monkey? Because they would have human characteristics but also monkey characteristic which are still there nowadays?

  4. Could it be possible that new species are not arisen, but just discovered?

  5. Could it be possible that all the species do not arise in series (after each other), but parallel (at the same time). Because if it would be the former, then the food chain would be incomplete?

  6. Why do we have puberty, and why don't boys already have facial hair when they are kids (for warmth)?

  7. They say humans find a lover because, evolutionary speaking, they want to produce children. But how come some couples choose not to have children?

  8. Why do humans talk and write (have a language), while monkeys don't?

  9. They say the big bang was the cause of everything, but how can material appear from nothing? (Which basically means 0=1) Even if organic molecules came from an-organic molecules, they it would still not mean that the organic molecules were living? (example: a wooden door is organic, but does not live)

  10. They say evolution is driven by mutations. Are protruding noses and nails the consequence of mutations? But most mutations are of disadvantages (example: diseases)

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closed as too broad by fileunderwater, David, kmm, AliceD, Chris Jan 31 '17 at 15:55

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    $\begingroup$ First: This is ways too broad. Please limit a question to one (or maybe two closely related questions) but not 23. Here at biology.se we require people to do at least some own research to solve the question. What have you found out? $\endgroup$ – Chris Jan 30 '17 at 15:10
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    $\begingroup$ I'm voting to close because this is TOO broad - please ask your questions individually and not all lumped into one question that is unanswerable. $\endgroup$ – Vance L Albaugh Jan 30 '17 at 15:25
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    $\begingroup$ @FacebFaceb Theoretically yes, but a lot of your separate questions would still be closed because we require you to do some previous research of your own and state how it did not answer your question. (Like Chris already said.) For example your last question can easily be answered by reading the wikipedia article about mutations. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutation $\endgroup$ – skymningen Jan 30 '17 at 15:44
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    $\begingroup$ Yes, separate into 23 post if you want good answers for each question. And answering convention here mandates citation and such... so researching the answer of all 23 questions will be too much for most people. $\endgroup$ – JayCkat Jan 30 '17 at 15:45
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    $\begingroup$ Most definitely absolutely way too broad! Also some of these questions have nothing to do with biology (e.g. there is one question about the big bang). I am voting to close. $\endgroup$ – Remi.b Jan 30 '17 at 15:54
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The post is way too broad. Many questions are unclear and many questions lack research from your part. But I still wanted to give you some info that may help you. Answers will be short but it would take a whole book to fully answer all questions.

You are often using "They" to refer to some undefined group of people and give a random straw man. Please always backup your claims with a reference. As a consequence most of your questions are opinion-based (which make them off-topic).

Intro course to evolutionary biology

First and before everything else, you should have a look at a short intro course to evolutionary biology such as Understanding Evolution by UC Berkeley for example.

Please do follow some intro course before reading the following. You will get much more from the below answers this way.

Your questions

You should read about coalescent theory.

  1. They say humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor. Was it literally one ancestor? Because if so, then it would need a partner to regenerate children right?

Yes, any two organisms on earth literally have a common ancestor which is a single individual. However, when thinking about closely related species as humans and chimps, the dating of the most recent common ancestor might rather correspond to a population than a single individual. It would be a single individual if there were only asexual reproduction with no genetic recombination.

  1. Even if they would have children, then these children would be brothers and sisters right, which means they cannot have sex to regenerate their children?

See above.

  1. They say that humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, does that mean that a certain brother's family became monkeys and the other brother's family became human?

If reproduction was asexual and if there were no recombination (which at this scale is not too an awful model depending on what predictions you are trying to achieve), yes one individual is ancestor of the human lineage while the other sibling is ancestor of the chimp lineage.

  1. If humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, then how come humans and monkeys are so different in terms of intelligence, hygiene, clothing?

  2. They say humans lost our fur because we don't need it anymore, but how come we still need cloths to wear to protect us from cold?

  3. Why do humans have to brush our teeth, cut our nails, use toilets and work for our food and drinks, while any other animals don't?

I will just make one short comment for all 3 questions.

If an oak tree and a pigeon have a common ancestor, then how come they are so different? You could ask the same question with any pair of species. the appreciation of the differences is completely arbitrary.

The terms you use are all very related (all related to intelligence) and fast to acquire. You typically talk about hygiene. Showering / bathing is a very recent human activity. Just a few centuries ago, no one was ever showering (not even the kings) and people were throwing their dejections in the street in cities.

  1. Why do men and women have those specific features that make a man a man and a woman and woman? Why do women have to give birth and not men?

For these questions, you will need to learn what a sex is, learn about sexual selection and eventually about Bateman's principle. You will note that these questions are not specific to humans.

Why do men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger than woman (while male and female chimpansees (our closest ancestors) both grow facial hair Why do men grow facial hair?)? Some people say men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger because they used to hunt (why did men hunt and not women?), but some say men hunt because they have more facial hair and are built stronger. Wouldn't it be a circle reasoning?

You are imagining a cause-consequence considering only extremes of the two variables. The reality is much more of a smooth process where gender roles happened slowly. Also, there are many factors that affect gender-specific general body size. In most species, females are bigger as females produce bigger gametes and, for the case of mammals typically, carry the baby. Gender roles such as defense, hunting and many other things explain such dimorphism. You will note that there is also similar dimorphism in chimps.

  1. Why do human male and female look different compared to other animals? Why do human individuals look different from each other, but all other animals look like each other (geometrically)?

The first question could be asked for any species again. For the second question, please have a look at the post Why do different humans look different?.

  1. Could it be possible that we relate humans to animals, because we associate animal behavior with human behavior due to our human reasoning (which we can't help of course)? But human and animal behavior that look similar, does not mean that they have the same meaning right?

I don't understand the question and it sounds very much a matter of opinion rather than a matter of evidences.

  1. Does 'survival of the fittest' mean the following?: Humans have finger nails and a protruding nose, because animals that didn't have nails or protruding noses are extinct?

"survival of the fittest" is a typical expression that refers to the process of natural selection. Natural selection is a process that causes a change in allele frequency over time caused by a fitness differential associated with genetic variance. If this decision does not make sense to you, make sure to have a look at an intro course to evolutionary biology.

  1. Why do humans have a chin, curly hair, eyebrows, lips and facial hair above the lips while monkeys don't?

  2. Why do humans have this specific hairline (separation line between hair and skin)

Just one comment for the above two questions.

These questions only are already too broad. You will need to focus on a single trait. You will also need to get some intro knowledge to evolutionary biology as it feels like you would make the mistake of being too adaptionist and misconsidering spandrels.

  1. Why can human hair and finger nails grow forever, but monkey's hair and nails don't grow that long?

Is this true? You will need a reference for that. I doubt chimps hair really stop growing. They probably just fall as they get long enough. I don't know much about that but I would definitely need some references to really understand in what terms are human hairs different from chimp hairs.

  1. Some human emotions such as guilt and fear sometimes result in not doing anything at all, but isn't that evolutionary a disadvantage?

Yes, very likely. The field that studies such thing is called evolutionary psychology.

  1. Humans have so little fur compared to monkeys. Which means that at some point, starting from the ancestor, the next generation lost more and more fur. At some moment there was so little fur left that generation felt cold and wore some clothing? But what about their naked parents who have about the same amount of fur?

I am not sure I understand the question. It feels like you are seeking for a sudden change where everybody suddenly went from being naked to wearing uniforms with bow ties.

  1. Why are there humans and monkeys, but not intermediate forms that slowly changed from the ancestor to human or ancestor to monkey? Because they would have human characteristics but also monkey characteristic which are still there nowadays?

You should have a look at Where are the evolutionary “inbetweeners”? and Why aren't there any transitional animals today?.

  1. Could it be possible that new species are not arisen, but just discovered?

Most species that are discovered have not arised any time recently indeed.

  1. Could it be possible that all the species do not arise in series (after each other), but parallel (at the same time). Because if it would be the former, then the food chain would be incomplete?

I don't understand your relationship with the food chain but yes speciation events occurs in any lineages, not totally independent of each other but in a way that "feels" like something we would call a parallel process and not a serial process.

  1. Why do we have puberty, and why don't boys already have facial hair when they are kids (for warmth)?

Have a look at an intro course to developmental biology.

  1. They say humans find a lover because, evolutionary speaking, they want to produce children. But how come some couples choose not to have children?

While evolutionary processes can eventually select for not reproducing (see kin selection), the likely main reason for why many coupled don't want kids have to do with our culture and not with the evolutionary forces.

  1. Why do humans talk and write (have a language), while monkeys don't?

Because we're intelligent. Many monkeys have some form of primitive communication though with a few words and a few signs.

  1. They say the big bang was the cause of everything, but how can material appear from nothing?

This is completely unrelated to biology.

(Which basically means 0=1) Even if organic molecules came from an-organic molecules, they it would still not mean that the organic molecules were living? (example: a wooden door is organic, but does not live)

I don't understand your question. But you should have a look at an introduction to abiogenesis

  1. They say evolution is driven by mutations. Are protruding noses and nails the consequence of mutations? But most mutations are of disadvantages (example: diseases)

The statement "evolution is driven by mutations" is very misleading if not simply wrong. Just have a look at an intro course to evolutionary biology!

In short, evolution is a change of allele frequency over time. There are various processes that can cause such changes. One of which is natural selection (NS). NS is caused by a fitness differential associated with different genotypes. It causes genotypes associated with higher fitness to raise in frequency, therefore removing genotype associated with lower fitnesses from the population. NS therefore results in a decrease of the within population genetic variance. Mutations brings up new genetic variance in the population. It is true that most mutations are neutral or deleterious and are therefore (by definition of what deleterious mean) counter selected and will eventually disappear from the population. The few beneficial mutations that occurs may eventually increase in frequency through NS and eventually reach fixation (that is a frequency of 1) in the population.

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    $\begingroup$ Re "Why do men have more facial hair growth...", one might ask why male deer have antlers and females don't, or why male lions have manes, peacocks have gaudy tails... Which gets you into the whole subject of evolution by sexual selection. $\endgroup$ – jamesqf Jan 30 '17 at 20:38
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    $\begingroup$ This is impressive. Well done. $\endgroup$ – Asher F. Jan 31 '17 at 14:14
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1 They say humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor. Was it literally one ancestor? Because if so, then it would need a partner to regenerate children right?

First off.. human and monkeys do not a mutual ancestors. Ape and monkeys have a mutual ancestor. Humans are a type of ape. Gorilla's are a type of ape.

It was an ancestral population. If we had a time machine, what we would see an ancestral population, then at some point in time the population got divided. The populations continue to have babies and accumulate mutations. Until so many genetic difference were accumulated the the two populations could no longer produce fertile offspring. That tipping point occurred 25-30 million years ago in Africa. http://www.livescience.com/32029-oldest-monkey-fossil-found.html

2 Even if they would have children, then these children would be brothers and sisters right, which means they cannot have sex to regenerate their children?

No reason why not? Evolution does not care about dead babies or morality. Only humans do.

3 They say that humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, does that mean that a certain brother's family became monkeys and the other brother's family became human?

Not exactly. Ape and monkeys have a mutual ancestor. Let say 31 millions ago, there might have been a family of pre ape-monkey. Said family might have had two brothers. Then 1 million years later, the descendants of one brother might have been come apes while the other become monkeys.

If humans and monkeys have a mutual ancestor, then how come humans and monkeys are so different in terms of intelligence, hygiene, clothing?

Well the last common ancestor was 30,000,000 years ago. 30 million years is a long time. The average life span in the us is about 75 years. The human species is only 200,000 years old. Domestication of dog only 25,000 years.

They say humans lost our fur because we don't need it anymore, but how come we still need cloths to wear to protect us from cold?

Well humans evolved from homonids who evolved on the Savannah of Africa. Nice and warm. 5 million years of evolution to survive in a place where the danger of death by heat stroke was real. Humans only left africa about 60,000 years ago. Only left the tropics and ventured into higher latitudes of asia and europe 20,000 years ago. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/

Just not enough time to evolve fur coats.

Why do humans have to brush our teeth, cut our nails, use toilets and work for our food and drinks, while any other animals don't?

Civilization. And the fact that you don't want to stave to death once you lose your adult teeth. And animals do clean and groom themselves. Cats, ape, monkeys, birds and dogs.

Why do men and women have those specific features that make a man a man and a woman and woman? Why do women have to give birth and not men? Why do men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger than woman (while male and female chimpansees (our closest ancestors) both grow facial hair Why do men grow facial hair?)? Some people say men have more facial hair growth and are built stronger because they used to hunt (why did men hunt and not women?), but some say men hunt because they have more facial hair and are built stronger. Wouldn't it be a circle reasoning?

Sexual dimorphism. Most animals have it. In fact the sexual dimorphism in human is rather small only about 10-15%. Sexual dimorphism in gorilla for example is nearly 260% where males gorilla range between 350 pounds (160 kg.) and reach 400 pounds (181 kg.), while females only about 155 pounds (70 kg.) and much less muscular. http://anthro.palomar.edu/primate/prim_7.htm

The question you should ask is not why men are stronger than women. Most male apes are bigger and stronger than female apes, most extremely so. The question you should ask is why women are nearly as strong as men. Why is sexual dimorphism in humans astonishingly small. The gibbon is one other ape that has such small dimorphism. The interesting thing between human and gibbons, both species are mostly monogamous. ie on average one male does not physically dominate all other males and mate with all the females in the tribe.

Why do human male and female look different compared to other animals? Why do human individuals look different from each other, but

all other animals look like each other (geometrically)? Because you are human. I am sure to other animals all humans look alike. In birds the difference between gender is very obvious. Males have one plumage, different colours and feathers. While females have another. In lions and dear and asian elephants, walrus, elephant seals and narwhals, the difference between males and females are also very obvious.

Look at dogs, cats. The variation in dogs far exceeds that in humans.

Could it be possible that we relate humans to animals, because we associate animal behavior with human behavior due to our human

reasoning (which we can't help of course)? But human and animal behavior that look similar, does not mean that they have the same meaning right? The difference between animals and humans are a matter of degree.

Does 'survival of the fittest' mean the following?: Humans have finger nails and a protruding nose, because animals that didn't have

nails or protruding noses are extinct?

No. Survival of the fittest also have the aspect of context. A fish is vastly more fit in the sea compared to a human. A bear is vastly more fit than a weaponless human on a river side.

Why do humans have a chin, curly hair, eyebrows, lips and facial hair above the lips while monkeys don't?

They do. they also have fur.

Why do humans have this specific hairline (separation line between hair and skin)

No idea what you are asking.

Some human emotions such as guilt and fear sometimes result in not doing anything at all, but isn't that evolutionary a disadvantage? Humans lived in tribe. In fact we evolve from an animal that lived in tribes. A lone homonid on the open savannah was easy food for a lot of animals. I have a strong suspicions that there was immense selection pressure for individuals who stayed with the tribe, and had behaviors that maintained the tribe.

Humans have so little fur compared to monkeys. Which means that at some point, starting from the ancestor, the next generation lost more and more fur. At some moment there was so little fur left that generation felt cold and wore some clothing? But what about their naked parents who have about the same amount of fur?

Cause the naked parent lived in the tropic of Africa. While the clothed offspring lived 40,000 years later in the higher latitudes of Asia and Europe, after 1000s of years of slowly moving northwards.

Why are there humans and monkeys, but not intermediate forms that slowly changed from the ancestor to human or ancestor to monkey? Because they would have human characteristics but also monkey characteristic which are still there nowadays?

Because nobody can sit still. Evolution continues to happen. Even the intermediate forms will continue to change. Why do you think apes are?

Why do we have puberty, and why don't boys already have facial hair when they are kids (for warmth)?

Because all mammals have puberty. It takes resources to grow up, become an adult and have your own babies. Childhood is the time to accumulate puppy fat and learn skill (even lions and wolves need to learn how to hunt). The question that should ask is why human childhood is so long.

They say humans find a lover because, evolutionary speaking, they want to produce children. But how come some couples choose not to have children?

Some couples are infertile. Development might not have gone right, so one member or both are either completely infertile or both have reduced fertility. Also sometimes it is better/more successful to help a sibling raise their children and have your own. Many reasons.

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  • $\begingroup$ Re "... between human and gibbons, both species are mostly monogamous." Huh? Don't know much about gibbons, but most humans sure aren't, unless forced to be by legal or religious pressure. $\endgroup$ – jamesqf Jan 31 '17 at 5:13
  • $\begingroup$ Even in cultures that today still legally allow polygamy... most people are monogamous. Most guys are not wealthy enough to maintain more than one woman and her children. And most man are not such a great catch that the woman is willing to be a sister wife and share his fortune. Only the wealthy and powerful ever practice polygamy in human cultures. $\endgroup$ – JayCkat Jan 31 '17 at 7:10
  • $\begingroup$ Well, you pretty well prove my point when you say the wealthy and powerful practice polygamy when they can, which makes it a matter of resources/opportunity rather than an inherent monogamous nature :-) But I am not talking about maintaining women & children (which is economics), but about sex. For instance, studies showing that various percentages of children weren't actually sired by the legal parent, or the common practice (in the West) of serial polygamy through divorce and remarriage. $\endgroup$ – jamesqf Jan 31 '17 at 21:45
  • $\begingroup$ And can you name a human culture where 95% of the men fail to have children. And most women are in married and have children only with the remaining 5% of men. That is what a polygamous species is like. Most males fail to breed. Most offspring are fathered by a very few males. I don't understand your point. There still places in the world where polygamy is legal both in the court and religion. And even then most people are monogamous in those cultures. $\endgroup$ – JayCkat Jan 31 '17 at 22:13
  • $\begingroup$ We are obviously using different definitons of the word 'monogamous'. I prefer the dictionary definition of "having only one mate". You seem to be defining polygamous as a very extreme case, while in fact very few species are truely monogamous. The reality seems to be that where they have a reasonably free choice, humans make a pretense of social & serial monogamy, while a significant number have sex outside that relationship. Also realize that among humans, reproduction is only a secondary factor in sex. $\endgroup$ – jamesqf Feb 1 '17 at 5:18

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