From what I behold, spiral and annular thickening of xylem and trachied cell walls leaves a lot of not thickened regions of cell wall. Lignin is the material which prevents water from escaping these water conduits. If lignin is absent from certain regions, does not that mean that water flows out of the xylem vessels and trachieds through their cell walls? If so, is not this disadvantageous to a plant? Why can't a plant simply thicken the cell walls with uniform lignin deposition, only sparing pits to allow lateral flow into the required tissue? I would appreciate your kind response.
Non uniform lignification of xylem vessels is beneficial to a plant in that it enables growth. It is at the unlignified parts of plants that growth occurs since fully lignified tissues are dead and so can not grow. Spiral and annular thickening allows for vessels to elongate and thus allows tissues to expand without breaking the vessel walls.
Water cannot just go on flowing from plant cells because they are not lignified, plant cells have cellulose cell walls and cell membranes which prevent water loss. In addition, water in the xylem is not under pressure so I do not think water would be able to flow out of the xylem vessels except in cases where water is forced to move to adjacent phloem tissues by osmosis during phloem translocation.