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Chronic hepatitis B is the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Oncolytic virotherapy (OV) is an emerging tool to treat cancer. However, one challenge of OV is that our immune system may produce neutralizing antibodies, which impaired its efficacy.

While on the other hand, antibody production against surface glycoprotein of HBV is inhibited in chronic hepatitis B. So can we use the HBV glycoprotein to pseudotype OV (e.g. VSV, measles, MLV), thereby circumvent the host humoral immunity? Can such viruses be used to treat HCC caused by chronic hepatitis B?

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