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I know that the above question is broad, but I specifically want an answer in terms of the following investigation - all of question 3 (ONLY) of this paper.

The independent variable, according to this mark scheme is the presence of hidden food in the cage to which the rats are released. How am I to identify this if it's not stated that the investigation investigates the ability to learn with the presence of hidden food.

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    $\begingroup$ Please include the question from the external site. There are good reasons to do this. The main one is: once the link breaks, your question is worthless. I'm voting to close this question as unclear because even though I have read the exam question and helped to edit the previous version of this question, you still do not have a specific question. Are you asking "what is an independent variable"? I sympathise with your question. It's a poor exam question in my opinion. $\endgroup$ – James Mar 22 '17 at 7:38
  • $\begingroup$ @James, it does indeed indicate that. The exam question claims that the difference in the percentage of mice in group P and Q who found food in the second experiment was due to the fact that the group P mice had to look for food when they were released the into the cage the first time around. In the first version of the question, I had completely missed the fact that there IS indeed an independent variable in this question. I deleted the other question. I am absolutely baffledas to how one can note the independent variable in this investigation when the question does not state it at all. $\endgroup$ – Mathematician Mar 22 '17 at 23:50
  • $\begingroup$ Yet, we seem to be required to notice such an independent variable. How? That's my new question, and it's completely different from the previous one. Does that make the question more specific? :) $\endgroup$ – Mathematician Mar 22 '17 at 23:51