Ferns such as Anemia phyllitidis, Blotiella lindeniana, Ctenitis hirta, Cystopterix fragilis, Hemionitis palmata and many others have roughened splity spore surface.

I ask, why is it evolutionary so? Does it have something to do with Equisetales spores, which has long derivates to join up together to spread more effectively? Or more like a convergention with polen of Asteraceae, which is morphologically adapted to zoogamy?


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