This is actually much more of a lesson in Latin linguistics/grammar.
The root, Lateral, comes ultimately from latus meaning “side" or "flank” in Latin. [Source].
By adding one of these suffixes we instead create an adjective meaning "of the side."
However, the suffixes differ in their inflection (specifically their gender):
Laterale has the neutral, singular suffix of the nominative 3rd declension.
Lateralis has the masculine, singular suffix of the nominative 3rd declension.
Let's break down each of these anatomical structures to understand the agreement-induced inflections [Source]:
os cuneiforme laterale - each of these words is neutral/singular:
- os = noun, declension 3, nominative, neutral, singular
- cuneiforme = adjective, declension 3, neutral, singular
- laterale = adjective, declension 3, nominative, neutral, singular
nervus cutaneus antebrachii lateralis - the 2 adjectives match the masculine/singular noun they describe:
- nervus = noun, declension 2, nominative, masculine, singular
- cutaneus = adjective, declension 2, nominative, masculine, singular
- antebrachii = noun, declension 2, genitive, singular
- lateralis = adjective, declension 3, nominative, masculine, singular
Note: you see a shift to the genitive case for antebrachii because in this instance this phrase means "Lateral cutaneous nerve of the forearm."
Latin Linguistics For Dummies:
Declension = category of nouns in Latin and Greek with broadly similar case formation (i.e., they are inflected/conjugated similarly).
Inflection = the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Nominative = The case used to indicate the subject of a finite verb.
Genitive = The case used to express some relationship such as possession or origin. It corresponds roughly to the English preposition "of."