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Why is it necessary to have accumulation of sodium and calcium ions in the myocardium cells while having acute heart failure? Normally, at resting membrane potential, sodium and calcium are more outside of the cell than inside, then I expect to see them enter less to the cell than to expect from them to enter and not exit.

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    $\begingroup$ Maintenance of resting membrane potential is an active process and you need energy and intact cellular membrane, otherwise the ions will flow in the direction of their electrochemical gradient, in this case into the cell. $\endgroup$
    – mpribis
    May 28, 2017 at 15:29
  • $\begingroup$ Thank you^ Basically, If I understood you properly, you've said that in this case the cellular membrane is non-intact or damaged. How the non-intact cellular membrane is expressed in this case? $\endgroup$ May 28, 2017 at 15:47
  • $\begingroup$ I meant to ask also How the non-intact cellular membrane is expressed in this case? and why it happens in heart failure? I thought about MI, but maybe it's not necessary. $\endgroup$ May 28, 2017 at 15:55
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    $\begingroup$ @UbiquitousStudent the condition is energy and intact membrane, Since the word and is used it is understandable that violation of any one term, there will be failure. $\endgroup$
    – JM97
    May 28, 2017 at 15:56

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