In short, yes. Any neuron that is involved in conveying sensory information from the periphery to the CNS is a sensory neuron. So I would consider all of those neurons in the retina sensory.
Arguably amacrine and horizontal neurons do not convey information "towards" the CNS, but they are involved in the processing of sensory information, therefore I would call them sensory. However I wouldn't split hairs about it if the consensus on amacrines/horizontals was interneurons, not sensory.
I guess the confusion is that many categories of neurons are not mutually exclusive, so neurons can be both sensory and interneuron.
Once reaching the optic lobe (I assume you mean areas in the thalamus, midbrain etc.), then the CNS neurons can loosely be classed as projecting/interneurons. Interneurons will remain within a region of the brain, often inhibiting activity in other cells within the region (or exciting). Projecting neurons will carry information to a different brain region, or back out to the periphery. These are very loose, in a nutshell classifications though.
Once you start looking at a specific region, e.g. the Lateral Geniculate Nucleus, then the neurons will be further classified, either by shape, function, neurotransmitters, inputs or outputs, or a combination of the above depending on the requirements of the system.
Edit: To elaborate, the types of neurons in the brain will usually be described in an area specific fashion, e.g. the lateral Lateral Geniculate Nucleus has 3 major classes of neurons, magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular, as well as some interneurons and supporting cells. Whereas about a dozen types of neurons have been described in the cochlear nuclei, including pyramidal, stellate, giant, golgi etc. But at this level, you would be looking at very specific differences that are not necessarily relevant to the pathways involved.
I would argue that interneurons are small and restricted to individual brain regions, e.g. the visual/auditory cortex, many of the neurons, e.g. pyramidal neurons in layers IV and V are generally projecting neurons that carry information around the brain. I don't have specific numbers for percentages, but about 20% interneurons sounds reasonable to me.