Rephrasing your question
The question is worded in a funny way. If I am not mistaken your question is
Are there other means of reproduction than cloning that do not require mating with another individual? In particular, I am interested in such mean of reproduction that would allow an individual to create an offspring of another sex.
I will assume this is your question. I don't fully understand the point of the first paragraph though if this is your question.
Means of reproduction are much more diverse than we tend to think. So diverse that it is sometimes hard to really class each reproduction in non-arbitrary bucket.
Yes that exist! There are several modes of reproduction that may be of interest to you, the main one be selfing. Selfing is when an individual fertilizes itself. Now, by definition, such individuals need to be hermaphrodites, however it is not impossible that there are individuals that look males, others that look females and yet they (typically the females but not only) are able to self every so often.
Just to give a funny example to show how diverse system of reproduction might be. In social ants, the queen can either let the sperm of a male fertilize her eggs and produce a female worker (or a future queen depending on whether the larvae receive royal jelly) or chose to undergo normal meiosis but the gamete from the mother will directly develop into an individual without fertilization and make a male. This is not cloning because 1) only half of the genome is being transmitted and 2) recombination occur.