What is the difference between scale and cataphyll in botany - aren't these the same type of organ? E.g. do cycad cones have scales or cataphylls? Pine cones have scales, I understand the compound nature of pine cones - does that make them scales? On fern petioles/stipes there are often scale-like organs I've seen called scales (though they are not very scale-like).
According to "Plant Identification Terminology: An Illustrated Glossary" (Harris & Harris, 2001):
Any thin, flat, scarious structure
- Note: "Scarious" = Thin, dry, and membranous in texture; not green
Brown or colorless scale-like structures believed to be modified leaves
So "scale" is going to be used more broadly, while a "cataphyll" (though scale-like) is more specifically always some type of modified leaf.
According to Wikipedia:
You can find good illustrations of cataphyll examples here.