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I have a small Jalapeno plant in my apartment. About two weeks ago, it started producing a few flowers. In the last few days, many of them have started to turn into fruit; however, a few of the flowers have fallen off. The flowers do contain some seeds. They look rather like this:

jalapeno flower

Note this is not a picture of my plant (my flowers are white) but apart from the color it looks quite similar.

I tried munching on the seeds to see if they were hot. They weren't at all. I believe it is a common misconception that the seeds are where capsaicin concentrates, but should there have been any heat? Is there none in the seeds at all? Or was it too early in development?

Related questions: Do you think these seeds were viable at this point, or would they need to develop in an actual pepper fruit?

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The reason the 'seeds' you ate weren't hot is because they're not seeds. What you thought are the seeds in the pepper flower are its anthers. The anthers are the pollen bearing parts of a flower. The unfertilized, and therefore undeveloped, seeds would be found in the flower's ovary which is at the base of the petals. The parts of a flower are labeled in this diagram.

Flower parts

I've tried both the seeds and the flesh of jalapeño peppers and noted the 'heat' in both but personally, I found the seeds a little hotter.

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