My background is in math and I know very little about biology. The few biology books that I've looked at seem to explain what is known (or what is believed), but don't really explain how we know what is known. For a specific example, when I hear that "DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein", I would like to know things like:
- How do we know that DNA makes RNA?
- How do we know that RNA makes protein?
- How do we know that there is such a thing as "protein" in the first place and how do we know what it is?
- How do we know that there is such a thing as RNA and how do we know what RNA is?
Can you recommend any books that do a good job of explaining how we know what we know in molecular biology and genetics?