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My question is, How does adjuvant enhance immunogenicity of antigen?

I just want to know deeply about it , Any suggestions will be helpful!

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closed as off-topic by canadianer, David, iayork, kmm, AliceD Aug 12 '17 at 13:07

This question appears to be off-topic. The users who voted to close gave this specific reason:

  • "Homework questions are off-topic on Biology unless you have shown your attempt at an answer. For more information see our homework policy." – AliceD
If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    $\begingroup$ A couple of points as this is your first post. A title is independent of a question, so even if your title is your question you should repeat it in the body of the question. If I am reading this on a phone I might not be able to see the title. And if your title is deemed poor, it might be edited. The second is that this is a quite broad and basic area. I find it difficult to understand why you couldn't find anything on the internet as a search for "adjuvant and immunogenicity mechanism" brought up several promising articles. $\endgroup$ – David Aug 9 '17 at 13:00
  • $\begingroup$ Well, it was a miscommunication between myself and the actual person who had this question and for the title concern, I'll fix it! $\endgroup$ – Ubdus Samad Aug 9 '17 at 15:25
  • $\begingroup$ It depends on the adjuvant. I think this is too broad. $\endgroup$ – canadianer Aug 9 '17 at 16:55
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This is a quick answer to a very broad question since the mechanisms of adjuvants are very different. I'll try to summarize just a few. For a deeper understanding please start reading this paper and its references.

1) Aluminum salts (aluminum phosphate or hydroxide)

Studies suggest alum salts work by causing the formation of an antigen depot at the inoculation site from where the antigen is released slowly. The trapping of soluble antigen in the alum gel may also increase the duration of antigen interaction with the immune system. Other mechanisms of action involve complement, eosinophil, and macrophage, activation and increased efficiency of antigen uptake by antigen presenting cells seen with particulate matter with a size under 10 micron.

2) Calcium salts

They work pretty much like aluminum salts but they are much better tolerated by the organism.

3) Bacteria-derived (peptidoglycan or lipopolysaccharide)

They are naturally recognized by the immune system and for this reason, they are used to simply boost the immune response.

4) Emulsions

They form a depot at the injection site, enabling the slow release of antigen. The immune system has more time to recognize the antigen and react.

5) Liposomes

They help to extend the half-life of antigens in the blood leading to a higher antigen exposure to antigen presenting cells after vaccination. A Very similar effect is achieved using microbeads made of artificial polymers.

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    $\begingroup$ Unfortunately the reference cited is relatively old (2004; a decade is a long time in this rapidly-moving field) and so the answer is dated as well. The depot effect has never been shown to be real. Aluminum salts and liposomes have both been linked to NLRP3 inflammasome and uric acid modes of immune activation; and so on. More recent references include here and here, but there are literally hundreds of recent papers on the subject. $\endgroup$ – iayork Aug 10 '17 at 11:52
  • $\begingroup$ @iayork thanks for the extra references. My answer is far from complete, it's a very basic overview. The reader should consult further the literature, of course. $\endgroup$ – alec_djinn Aug 10 '17 at 13:18
  • $\begingroup$ I voted to close the question as it's far too broad to answer properly in this format and shows no evidence of basic research. $\endgroup$ – iayork Aug 10 '17 at 13:18
  • $\begingroup$ @alec_djinn's Sorry I didn't knew much about immunology or vaccination, I just had the basic knowledge and have just started studying the the subject, I appreciate your efforts and will from now do my research beforehand. $\endgroup$ – Ubdus Samad Aug 10 '17 at 17:15

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