For example, if I sleep at 1 AM and wake up at 10 AM, will it negatively affect my health opposed to sleeping at 10 PM and waking up at 7 AM?
There is a popular theory that each person has a certain "chronotype" [Ref 1]. Based on your genetics, you could be naturally an early person ("Lark") or a late person ("Owl") [Ref. 2]. What will negatively affect your health is actually fighting what you naturally are. You probably know which chronotype you are, and if not you can go by what time you naturally sleep/wake when you don't have school/job scheduling such as at the weekend.