Off course you can! Here are career paths for you as per my limited knowledge:
There are lot of applications in this domain. For example in Microarray Gene Expression or Proteomics analysis (for example, this paper).
Sequence alignments use common techniques like Dynamic Programming, Probabilistic or Heuristic methods, etc.
- Computational Biology
There are lot of applications like Lagrangian and Eulerian Mechanics (Computational Anatomy), Computational Phylogenetics (Computational Evolutionary Biology), etc.
- Systems Biology - In Systems Biology, you can have applications in:
1-) Probability and Hypothesis Testing - usually used to find associations between genes (Ref: S. Krawetz (ed.), Bioinformatics for Systems Biology, DOI 10.1007/978-1-59745-440-7_8, Chapter 8)
2-) Stochastic Modelling of Biological Patterns - ODEs,PDEs (applied to lot of problems), Markov Chains, HMM, PSSM are common mathematical implementations in this domain.
3-) Population Genetics - uses Statistical models (for example Genetic Distance), exponential equations (for example, Cumulative Effect of Mutation)
P.S: Here are some tools you might be interested in:
1-) Bioconductor - one of the main reasons why R is preferred language by BioStatisticians.
Wish you best of luck with your career!