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An organism that carries out sexual reproduction with itself, for example a flower with both the anther and stigma, does it actually contain 2 sets of genes in order to produce genetically dissimilar organisms or do it just leave the offspring to become genetically dissimilar through random crossing over during miosis?

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Your second piece is correct: dissimilarity is produced through meiosis.

from The evolution of meiotic sex and its alternatives

Strikingly, almost all forms of uniparental reproduction do maintain meiosis, but abandon just outcrossing. Hence, the paradox of sex in eukaryotes must focus on the purpose of meiosis.

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  • $\begingroup$ What do you mean by abondoning outcrossing? $\endgroup$
    – user35897
    Sep 7, 2017 at 14:06

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