To test the effectiveness of drugs, they are typically tested on animals. How cancer is induced in lab animals to test the effectiveness of cancer drugs?

  • $\begingroup$ That depends on the cancer. There are many mouse models which are susceptible to develop cancer or can be induced to do so. This might be a starter: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20936938 Another way is to inject cancer cells from humans into immunodeficient mice, which then can be able to "settle" and grow. $\endgroup$
    – skymningen
    Oct 10, 2017 at 9:10
  • $\begingroup$ What is the success rate of cancer transfer from human to mouse method? And why not extract cells from the mouse, induce cancer in vitro and place them back in original organ? In this case there will not be any immune response? $\endgroup$
    – akm
    Oct 10, 2017 at 15:25
  • $\begingroup$ I am not an expert, otherwise I would have written a full answer. You can induce some cancers directly in genetically susceptible mice, but not all of them. Also, doing that many operation on small mouse organs is quite likely to kill them before they develop any cancer (not speaking of the ethical implications of the amount of additional discomfort they would have to endure). $\endgroup$
    – skymningen
    Oct 11, 2017 at 6:52


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