I know that in terms of post-translational modifications of genes, prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ highly because of the lack of introns in prokaryotic DNA. With this said, do prokaryotic DNA sequences contain enhancer elements other than the UAS(upstream activating sequence)?

In addition, are enhancer elements like promoter-proximal elements and enhancer elements encoded directly within the DNA? Or are they proteins that attach themselves to the strand of DNA in order to enhance transcription?

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do prokaryotic DNA sequences contain enhancer elements

Yes: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1776167

other than the UAS(upstream activating sequence)

The Gal4/UAS system is borrowed from yeast, a eukaryote https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GAL4/UAS_system

In addition, are enhancer elements like promoter-proximal elements and enhancer elements encoded directly within the DNA?

Yes. Enhancers are usually considered to be encoded directly within the DNA; e.g.: see the following recently published historic perspective on the discovery of enhancers by its discoverer, Walter Schaffner : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25719310

Sidenote: Enhancers have originally been discovered in a virus, and thus neither in prokaryotes nor eukaryotes

Or are they proteins that attach themselves to the strand of DNA in order to enhance transcription?

Enhances (often / ~always) exert their function though proteins. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enhancer_(genetics) Note that this doesn't necessarily affect the definition of enhancers.

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