Are there model cells (in the sense of model organisms) in the human body (other than E.coli) about which is known most (with respect to structure, function, metabolism, gene expression, ...) and to which I can refer when asking questions about "typical cells" (which per se don't exist). The other way around:

About which cells (added: normal and mature) in the human body do we know most?

(Maybe there's a cell in the rat we know more about, but also know/believe that it is very similar to a human cell? Which one, then?)

Having asked this, I'd also like to know, about which neurons in the human brain is known most, e.g. about "pyramidal cells in cortical layer IV"?

Related question: Are all functions of a human cell known?

  • $\begingroup$ HeLa cells (from a cervical cancer) are probably the most studied human cells : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HeLa. Because these cells are cancerous and are "immortal" I don't know if any knowledge gained is that useful, so I'll post as a comment. $\endgroup$ – VonBeche Oct 20 '17 at 15:43
  • $\begingroup$ @VonBeche - The knowledge gained from study of HeLa cells is incalculable. Just one result - the polio vaccine - should give you an indication of their worth. However, it is not a normal human cell, so... $\endgroup$ – anongoodnurse Oct 20 '17 at 18:07
  • $\begingroup$ I would argue that HEK293 cells might be a contender against HeLa for the price of the most studied cells. $\endgroup$ – Jeppe Nielsen Oct 20 '17 at 21:44
  • $\begingroup$ We know most about corneal epithelial cells because we see right through them. $\endgroup$ – Gaurav Oct 23 '17 at 1:41
  • $\begingroup$ @Gaurav: seriously or just joking? $\endgroup$ – Hans-Peter Stricker Oct 23 '17 at 10:15