What is the definition of set of chromosomes? Does it differ from pair of chromosomes?


Yes those two expressions refer to different things.

Set of chromosome

The term "set of chromosome" refers to ploidy number. A haploid has one set of chromosome, a diploid has two sets of chromosomes, an hexaploid has six sets of chromosomes.

In humans, each set of chromosome is made of 23 chromosomes (22 autosomes and 1 sex chromosome).

Pair of chromosome

A pair of chromosome refers to the two homologous chromosomes in a diploid individual (one chromosome from each set for a given chromosome number).

Source of information

If the above is unclear, then you should have a look at any intro course to genetic such as these courses by Khan Academy for example.

  • $\begingroup$ Plz clarify this a bit more. 1- Does each set of chromosome come from mother and father in a PAIR of chromosome? 2- Chromatid - a single chromosome in a newly copied pair - Do Two Chromatid contain the Identical DNA sequence ? $\endgroup$ – Tanvir Jun 18 '19 at 5:20
  • $\begingroup$ 1) Yes, although most of the time, we don't know which chromosome of a pair comes from which parent (we don't know which chromosome of a pair belong to which set). 2) Yes. There are many related posts to this second question of yours. E.g. see What are homologous chromosomes? or Chromosome and chromatid numbers during cell cycle phases. Feel free to open a new post if you've got more questions. $\endgroup$ – Remi.b Jun 18 '19 at 14:46

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