All cells have the same genome and differ only by the expression pattern. Is it possible to determine the tissue origin of a cell based on its DNA sequence using short tandem repeat (STR) analysis or copy number variation (CNV) analysis?
The answer is in the question but I suppose you wanted to ensure you were not missing some info.
The DNA sequence is the same in all cells of a multicellular organism. Only the expression pattern varies among tissues. It is therefore impossible to tell from the DNA sequence alone what tissue a cell come from.
Of course, as you talk about CNV, if you consider that the number of chromosome is part of the info present in a DNA sequence, then haploid cells (spermatozoids and ovules) are an exception and you could tell them apart. Similarly anucleated cells would be an exception as they contain no nuclear DNA.
Further potential exceptions are explained by @tsttst in his comment.
There was a paper in Science, August of this year (apologies to the author for not remembering their name). They worked up a protocol for single cell bisulfite sequencing and through the use of known marker genes managed to identify multiple neuronal sub-types based on non-CpG methylation across gene bodies.
Non-CpG methylation across gene bodies is seen often to be inversely correlated to gene expression, through this you can infer an expression profile of known marker genes giving you have a solid poke at a cell type with only a DNA sequence.
(Edit: Assuming this holds true in tissues outside of the cortex)
i would rather start with an assumption that no two cells in the human body have the same genome. Mutations occur frequently; most of them are repaired, but some remain unrepaired. Human body is a genetic mosaic.
Abyzov et al. (Genome Research, 2017):
We estimate that on average a fibroblast cell in children has 1035 mostly benign mosaic SNVs. (...) These findings reveal a large degree of somatic mosaicism in healthy human tissues, link de novo and cancer mutations to somatic mosaicism, and couple somatic mosaicism with cell proliferation.