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"Each gamete is genetically unique because the DNA of the parent cell is shuffled before the cell divides. This helps ensure that the new organisms formed as a result of sexual reproduction are also unique."

Then why do we say that the DNA of the parent influences the characteristics of the child while the DNA of the child is formed as a combination of shuffled up nitrogenous and phosphate bases?

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  • $\begingroup$ Welcome to SE Biology. Please provide a citation for your quotation. $\endgroup$
    – David
    Dec 22, 2017 at 15:26

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To explain it briefly:

Lets take a human as example, you are diploid and you have a pair of 23 chromosomes (= total 46) and the sex chromosomes which I will exclude for this explanation.

Your gamete is haploid and has therefore only one of the two paired chromosomes. So for every chromosome pair there are 2 possible chromosomes. So in total you have 223 possibilites to arrange chromosomes. The gamete from the sexual mating partner also has 223 possibilites to arrange chromosomes. So in total a new diploid organism has (223)x(223) possibilites. So unique.

However, it is always the chromosomes of the parents. So yes, parents influence the children because the genetic information of the children can be found in one of the two parents.

Furthermore you have recombination, but you already asked another question about this. So I will not expand this answer.

There are relevant articles in Wikipedia on genetic recombination and meiosis that I would recommend.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you for your contribution. I have reset your programming-style powers in html superscript tags and replaced * by x for general readability. I have also rewritten your reference links in a way that it is clear what they refer to. $\endgroup$
    – David
    Dec 22, 2017 at 13:29
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Parents influens children's characters because the shuffeling (crossing over) changes only few genes present on the parent chromosome and also these changed gene peices are also parental so actually we recieve a non parental chromosome (generated by shuffling)but the genes present on it are still parental.. Hope this helps

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