I want to note that I am not a biologist. I've been on a nearly 20-year search for the identity of the parents of my 4th great grandfather (not an easy task.)
I'm using ancestry.com DNA, GEDmatch, and family trees of my matches in hopes of using DNA triangulation to find my ancestors. In addition, I have a half-sibling who also had his DNA tested which allows me to find common ancestors on this side of the family.
I read the article "Relatedness" on the topic of inherited parental dna with two half-siblings and I'm not sure I understand what the writer means when she says:
In other words, you and your half-brother should be able to figure out what part of your DNA came from your mom. And if you subtract out that shared DNA, what is left must have come from your dad!
My first thought was that a person and their half-sibling wouldn't inherit exactly the same DNA from their mother, could they? For example, the mother has two different alleles for some trait. Her son could get a copy of one and the daughter could get a copy of the other. Therefore, in the author's example, how could subtracting out the shared DNA with the brother give the girl the ability to identify exactly which DNA must have come from her dad?
I read on and the author addresses this by saying:
One brother inherited the green version of the mother’s chromosome 2, while the other brother inherited the blue version. This means that none of the chromosomes match! So testing wouldn’t tell the brothers which version of chromosome 2 came from which parent.
It turns out, though, that it’s really unlikely that siblings would have two totally different versions of a chromosome. This is because of something called recombination.
She's talking on entire chromosomes here which is different, but it doesn't seem to address fully why the girl should be able to 100% identify what DNA came from her dad by subtracting the shared DNA with her brother. I read that half-siblings share 25% of the DNA, but the mother here surely contributed more than 25% to each of her children.
In practice, my half-sibling shows a genetic relationship to people on our shared parent's side that I do not (and likewise, I have genetic relationships to people on our shared parent's side that he does not.) Therefore, I'm positing that my brother and I each inherited some different DNA from our shared parent.
I would take the writer's word for it, but I'm confused. Where am I going wrong? (Sorry about the bad biology background.)