I'm working on a simple computational model of Primate eye: as we know, it presents a central part, the fovea, that is very rich of receptors in comparison with eye periphery. I'm wondering if other species eye, like octopus, present a similar structure: a central fovea. Thanks
Yes, they do have an area of densely packed receptors, although not point-like as the human fovea.
Talbot and Marshall (2011) performed a retinal topography analysis in three species of cephalopods: a cuttlefish, a squid and an octopus.
According to the authors:
It was found that all species possessed an increase in photoreceptor density in a horizontal streak approximately placed at the position of a potential horizon in the habitat.
Here is an image from the same paper:
The retinal topography of each of the three species in this study: (a) S. plangon and (b) O. cyanea show a prominent, horizontally orientated band of increased photoreceptor density across the horizontal equator of the retina; (c) S. lessoniana shows a more centrally positioned area of increased photoreceptor density.
Source: Talbot, C. and Marshall, J. (2011). The retinal topography of three species of coleoid cephalopod: significance for perception of polarized light. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1565), pp.724-733.