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I'm translating a necropsy report, and one sentence says:

Синусоиды полнокровные. Портальные тракты сохранены, сосуды умеренно полнокровные.
The sinusoids are plethoric. The portal tracts are intact, with moderately plethoric blood vessels.

The meaning of the Russian word is "full of blood". There are three words in English: plethoric, congested, hyperemic. Which one is used more often in necropsy reports when describing the "blood-filledness" of blood vessels and tissues?

Per the comment below left by Bryan Krause: in my text, this feature, "full-bloodedness" of vessels, is clearly not pathological, because each of the several dozen animals has this "plethora of blood" in vessels in many instances across the document, and in the end the researchers come to the conclusion that the animals did not display any negative effects from the treatment.

I googled in Google Books using "congested vessels autopsy", "plethoric vessels autopsy" and "hyperemic vessels autopsy" and found all terms in use:

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  • $\begingroup$ Those words aren't necessarily synonyms so it isn't as simple as which is more often used, it would depend on what condition the Russian pathologist was referring to. $\endgroup$ – Bryan Krause Jan 25 '18 at 7:17
  • $\begingroup$ @BryanKrause - is there a good description of the difference between these three terms in postmortem pathology? It looks like there's only one word in Russian for this, "full-blooded" (polnokrovny). It looks like in English the word "congested" might be used to refer not only to blood (judging by my Google Books search) $\endgroup$ – CopperKettle Jan 25 '18 at 7:51
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    $\begingroup$ I'm not a pathologist so I'm hesitant to say much more because I'm not sure what common practice is for reporting "normal full-bloodedness" - my impression is that all three words are referring to an over filling of blood - in the examples you provided this is certainly the case - but that may be inaccurate. "Blood-filled" might be a safer translation even. And yes, "congested" has many other meanings, such as 'nasal congestion' when the nose is full of mucus or "traffic congestion" when a lot of vehicles are on the road. It is a generic term, not at all specific to blood. $\endgroup$ – Bryan Krause Jan 25 '18 at 17:15
  • $\begingroup$ congestion implies increase blood filling on account of a passive process such as congestive heart failure, hyperemic an active process such as inflammation and plethora doesn't assign a cause to the excess blood content of the vessels. I wouldn't use any of these terms to describe a normal vessel filling at post mortem. But I'm also not a pathologist. $\endgroup$ – Graham Chiu Jan 26 '18 at 7:26

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