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The following is written in a well-known textbook of surgery:

Each gram of enteric carbohydrate provides 4.0 kilocalories (kcal) of energy. Parenterally administered carbohydrates (eg, intravenous dextrose) yield 3.4 kcal/g

What is the explanation for this?

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  • $\begingroup$ Is the textbook refering to the same type of carbohydrate in both case ? $\endgroup$ – Frédéric Feb 3 '18 at 17:01
  • $\begingroup$ The 3.4 refers to dextrose. What other carbohydrate is given iv? $\endgroup$ – Graham Chiu Feb 3 '18 at 20:20
  • $\begingroup$ @Frédéric unfortunately, this is not elaborated upon. $\endgroup$ – playreader Feb 4 '18 at 5:12
  • $\begingroup$ @GrahamChiu theoretically one can also administer fructose or inverted sugar syrup etc., but I don't think they are widely used. $\endgroup$ – playreader Feb 4 '18 at 5:37
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Parenteral carbohydrate is usually dextrose which is actually D-Glucose monohydrate. Monohydrate implies coupling with a water molecule, such that 1 gram contains a lower relative component of glucose, resulting in a lower kcal yield.

D-Glucose monohydrate

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