After seeing a documentary about PMSG farms, where horses are used and killed for collecting PMSG hormones, we wondered if hormones can be synthesized. And I haven't had an answer.

I know that there are similar molecules that can be synthesized and have similar effects. But I have to admit that I never really thought about where hormones, that you can buy, stem from. So I have tried to do some research but I always end up in articles where certain ways in cells are described.

So here's my question : Can we actually produce hormones (not similar-effect molecules) in a petri dish? Or does it always require a higher evolved organism? Are there limiting factors like "Hormone A is easy to produce, while Hormone B can only be taken from higher evolved organisms, because of structure, chemistries or else?"

And following : Where do such hormones we use in the lab putting in the petri dish, medical steroids and others stem from?

Edit: I might highlight that the reason I ask, is the biological reason:" Where do medical an scientific used hormones stem from and why or when is it hard to synthesize them" since I found it to be some knowledge that a science student should have.

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    $\begingroup$ Please see this. Insulin used to come from pigs. Now it comes from bacteria. Lucky little porkers. $\endgroup$ – anongoodnurse Feb 7 '18 at 1:48

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