As @LinuxBlanket stated, that's too many questions. But I thought this interesting so wanted to answer anyway.
I'm researching on the topic that if bacteria have souls then animal cells and plant cells also do for an article.
Since there's no evidence of "souls" anywhere, the topic is moot. I encourage you to read this.
Concerning your main question
Can animlal body cells survive outside the body? For how long
That has nothing to do with a soul - if souls did exist, then they'd only really matter when the organism dies. So how long something lives has nothing to do with your topic.
You should also think about what "alive" means, as there isn't a solid definition in Biology. usually the definition is around replication and/or metabolism, but then would you say a virus is alive? If yes, what about prions? If you cut a tree to the stump, when exactly does it "die"? Where do you draw the line?
OK, to answer your questions.
Yes. Think of a cell as an enclosed unit that metabolises and respirates. As long as the cell gets what it needs to continue those two processes, whether within the tissue or in a synthetic setting, it'll "survive". See this.
So as I explained, you can keep a cell ticking along as long as you can keep those basic processes going. At some point, a cell will want to replicate. So now you have to think - is my 1 surviving cell becomes 2, then 4, etc., then cell number 1 dies, am I still classing it as survival? If you want to keep cell number 1 alive indefinitely, you can adjust its environmental conditions to slow the pace of its life - cool the cell down, chemical reactions for metabolism and respiration slow down and the individual cell will "live longer". You can even freeze a cell for years then thaw it, and it will continue to live. See this.
That's for you to figure out. I encourage you to look up the definitions of cells, tissues, organs and organisms.
If a cell dies, it's considered dead. Even in biology.
Again, the definitions of "living" aren't set in stone. Personally, I reduce a living thing into these two requirements:
- Something that replicates
- Something that metabolises
But, I would say that animal cells meet the requirements of the general consensus more than viruses and prions (they replicate), but less than plant cells. This might be a good start to exploring why. But in short, animal cells tend to work together as tissues. Plant cells are a little more viable on their own. You can take a plant cell and grow an entire plant from it. You can only do the same with an animal if you use stem cells.
- You should be able to answer that question yourself now =)