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Histamine is a neurotransmitter that also has peripheral functions such as the regulation of gastric acid secretions, allergic responses, etc. I know that opioids stimulate a release of histamine but I want to know how?

What exactly I would like answered is:

  • Which of the opioid receptors are involved in the histamine release that opioids stimulate and to what extent are they?

  • How does the activation of the opioid receptors in question lead to a release of histamine?

  • Are there any ways of suppressing the histamine release stimulated by opioids without compromising the analgesia they elicit?

I would like an answer, not just links. However I would like you to cite journal articles, although a formal reference list is not required so long as I can easily find the link to the abstract/full article.

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    $\begingroup$ This might get you started: consider the references in acnp.org/g4/GN401000037/CH037.html, especially in the section "modulation of histamine synthesis and release in vivo". This is not my area of expertise, so I will leave it to someone else to explain things. $\endgroup$ – blep Feb 12 '13 at 8:47

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