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An article in Nature Scitable on DNA Replication and the causes of Mutation states that:

When an incorrect nucleotide is added to the growing strand, replication is stalled by the fact that the nucleotide's exposed 3′-OH group is in the "wrong" position… During proofreading, DNA polymerase enzymes recognize this and replace the incorrectly inserted nucleotide so that replication can continue. Proofreading fixes about 99% of these types of errors

I am interested to know how this value of 99% was determined, and this is not explained in the article.

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    $\begingroup$ hi @Johny, maybe you can be more expansive in your question. What is proofreading for example, you didn't even mention DNA replication. You have to make the distinction between Translation/ transcription and Replication... $\endgroup$ – Untitpoi Mar 2 '18 at 15:55
  • $\begingroup$ Very sorry, I was unaware of the standards of asking questions on stackexchange. I have updated the question and if anymore information is needed please feel free to give me feedback. $\endgroup$ – Johnny Johnston Mar 2 '18 at 22:33
  • $\begingroup$ I have edited your question in form that answers my criticism. Please note that the article and hence your question is about DNA replication — not transcription or translation. Consult a standard text book or Wikipedia if this is not clear to you. I have now recinded my negative vote and close vote as the question is reasonable and the answer not easy to find by an internet search. $\endgroup$ – David Mar 2 '18 at 23:35
  • $\begingroup$ It would be nice if Nature Scitable actually used citations. The most used technique in molecular biology to determine the function of something is actually to prevent it from functioning and observing the effects. I would venture a guess that, simply, replication error rates were determined with and without the proofreading activity. I’ll try and find some of the original papers that studied this, but they may be hard to dig up. $\endgroup$ – canadianer Mar 3 '18 at 2:18

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