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I learned that the endomembrane system includes the nuclear membrane, ER, the golgi, lysosome, endosomes etc. But why doesn't it include the mitochondria and the chloroplast?

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  • $\begingroup$ Another clue in favour of the Endosymbiotic theory? For instance Mitochondria having both in inner and an outer membrane. $\endgroup$ – Alain Pannetier Mar 7 '18 at 20:40
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Small vesicules continuously bud from the ER membrane and fuse into the Golgi, and this vesicule trafficking is also involved in adjusting the cytoplasmic membrane's composition and extent. This is a defining feature of the endomembrane system.

The membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria are not involved in this vesicule trafficking, which is why they are not considered part of the endomembrane system (even though they "have membranes" and "are inside the cell", which is the etymology of the term "endomembrane").

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